What is the European Parliament ?
The European Parliament is the legislative organ of the European Union. It was created in 1952 as the “Assemblée commune de la Communauté Européenne du Charbon et de l’Acier”.
It is elected every 5 years by direct universal suffrage. The last elections took place in May 2014, and it counted 751 deputies. The European Parliament’s seat is in Strasbourg.
The Parliament has three main roles:
1.A Legislative role
-It adopts the legislation of the Union with the Council of the European Union, on the basis of the propositions made by the European Commission.
-It has a say in the international agreements
-It has a say in the enlargements
2. A survelliance role
-It has democratic control over all the institutions of the Union
-It examines the petitions presented by civilians and starts investigations
-It debates the monetary politics with the European Central Bank
-It establishes the budget of the Union with the Council
-It approves of the long term budget of the Union (named “cadre financier pluriannuel)
The number of European deputies that each State that belongs to the Union may have is roughly proportional to it’s population, but it follows the principal of digressive proportionality: each country has a minimum of 6 and a maximum of 96 deputies and the total number of deputies can’t go over 751 (counting the president). The deputies are not grouped together according to their nationalities but according to their political affiliations.
The president represents the Parliament in front of the other institutions of the Union and the rest of the world. He has the last word on the Union’s budget.
If you wish to ask the Parliament to act upon a precise question, you must present to it a petition that can concern any subject under the Union’s control, but you have to be a civilian of one of the countries member of the European Union or reside in the Union.
II. What is the function of a deputy?
With the initiative of the European Commission, a deputy writes the law propositions in the context of a Parliamentary Commission, before voting them in plenary sessions.
They can become a mediator when a petition is presented by civilians and can be appointed in an investigation commission, in the case of infractions or wrong applications of the Community law. They can use the “Cour de Justice des Communautées européennes ” in opposition to the Commission or to the Union’s Council if they do not fulfill their duties. They give their permission for the appointment of the members of the direction of the European Central Bank.
The European deputy has to assist to:
-the 12 monthly sessions of the European Parliament in Strasbourg
-the additional plenary sessions in Brussels
-the Parliamentary commissions in Brussels
III. Edouard Martin, a French European Deputy
Edouard Martin is a part of the « Groupe de l’Alliance Progressiste des Socialistes et Démocrates » in the European Parliament and is a deputy part of the East distict.
He is a member of multiple Commissions, such as:
-ITRE, Commission for the industry, research and energy
-EMPL, Commission of employment and social affairs
-FEMM, Comission for the rights of women and the equality of the genders
-europarl [en ligne]. date de consultation [6/03/2018]. Disponible sur [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/fr/124947/EDOUARD_MARTIN_home.html]
-Thomas Bresson, Edouard Martin, wikimedia commons [en ligne]. date de consultation [06/03/2018]. disponible sur [https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2015-05-22_18-42-05_edouard-martin-belfort.jpg]